A Conviction is Not Justice

Dear Community,

This week we heard a verdict that delivered some justice to George Floyd’s family, to Black, Indigenous, and People of Color communities in the U.S., to Minnesotans of all races and creeds, and Black communities worldwide. Shortly thereafter, we were barely unable to exhale when we heard of the violent taking of the life of 16-year-old Ma’Khia Bryant, who called the police for support only to have her life taken at their hands. I know I speak for the AFF staff in sharing that we, like many of you, are holding complex emotions amidst overwhelming grief…for George, Ma’Khia, Daunte, Adam and for the countless others across generations who we’ve lost to police violence.

I want to lift up George Floyd’s family — nothing can ease your pain. Our deepest condolences and desire for healing and repair. I want to lift up Darnella Frazier, the 17-year-old Black girl who shot the videotape that documented Derek Chauvin’s brutal murder of George Floyd.

I want to lift up the Black Lives Matter movement, countless organizers and allies who took to the streets, and the folks in community who made it their business to demand justice — all with the purpose of honoring George’s memory, deepening their personal commitment to the fight for racial justice and bravely dismantling white supremacy one interaction at a time.

I want to lift up people-power and acknowledge those who saw injustice, and spoke out against it with their bodies, through their organizing, their art-making, their donations, their work at the polls, their prayers, their love and their truth-telling.

I want to lift up the jury — six white and six Black/People of Color — who together were able to ensure that accountability at the hands of our legal system could be realized. It was not that long ago that juries let off George Zimmerman, Daniel Pantaleo (who killed Eric Garner) and countless others (police and civilians) who haven’t been held accountable.

It was painful to explain to my children as we awaited the verdict that just a few short decades ago, unpunished deaths of Black people were social events called lynchings in our country. They were filled with joy and celebration for some white communities and terror and deep pain for Black and Indigenous and People of Color communities. At their young ages, my children were skeptical but more hopeful than I was for justice. To this day, the rage and sorrow I felt 30 years ago for Anthony Baez and Amadou Diallo as a young girl in the South Bronx — the lesson that I lived in a place that allowed unpunished police violence — was imprinted in my being forever. This week’s verdict is held amidst the memories of countless incidents of state-sanctioned violence against BIPOC communities. Grantee partners like Movement for Black Lives, Make the Road NY, Communities United for Police Reform, Live Free Campaign, Young Women’s Freedom Center, among so many others, have the track record to prove that this demand for justice continues to be a long road.

I wish I could feel a sense of gratification about this verdict, but all I feel is deep grief and loss. Our current justice system can’t undo the harm and loss of life. It can’t prevent future harm or police violence. It won’t bring back George, Daunte, Adam, Breonna, Ma’Khia, Anthony or Amadou. Only an altogether different system of community safety and care — the abolition of punitive systems like police and prisons — can deliver justice, safety and a guarantee for a deep regard for human life.

I send you all solace in the grief and strength for our collective fight. I send my deepest sympathy and bittersweet acknowledgement to our Black, Brown and Indigenous family. Our lives have intrinsic value. It is in moments like this when our connection, conviction and organizing — our songs, prayer and ancestral music — come to lift us out of the abyss.

Now is the time for philanthropy to deeply resource BIPOC-led frontline organizations that are advancing abolitionist strategies, healing justice and long term power building for BIPOC communities. It is time to open the floodgates of resources that have historically been locked away and fund well beyond the IRS-required 5 percent. People’s lives are literally on the lines — BIPOC-led organizations need robust resources to turn the tide and powerfully defend communities while building the community-based safety alternatives that render prisons and policing obsolete.

M4BLIn closing, I want to direct you to a statement from the Movement for Black Lives, on what true justice for George Floyd looks like and how we can continue to push the movement forward. To support Black-led organizations in Minneapolis and across Minnesota during in this critical moment, consider giving to:

Be on the lookout for updates to this blog post about action steps philanthropy and communities can take as directed by our movement partners.

In hope and justice,
Manuela Arciniegas, Director

Grantee Spotlight: Danielle Sered of Common Justice

Danielle Sered

Danielle Sered envisioned, launched and directs grantee partner Common Justice. The organization develops and advances solutions to violence that transform the lives of those harmed and foster racial equity without relying on incarceration.

Sered has just released Until We Reckon: Violence, Mass Incarceration and a Road to Justice, a groundbreaking, insightful book that explores the idea of restorative justice, challenges our ideas of incarceration and offers readers a restorative approach to violent crime. We took a few moments to speak with Sered about her book, the future of mass incarceration and our justice system and how past experiences have shaped her.

Can you tell us about a time when you personally had to reckon or deal with the idea of punishment? What did this early lesson teach you and how does this live in your personal work as a leader?

As an adolescent, I made the kinds of mistakes adolescents make, and a handful of them landed me in the criminal justice system. In the most serious of those instances, I was met with mercy and my dear friend and codefendant (a young Black man) was met with severe punishment. I learned then about the racial disparities in the criminal justice system as someone who benefited from them.  

I left that experience knowing two things that would take me a long time to figure out how to live into:

(1) that it was my job from that day forward to make racial inequity my enemy, to find and join with those who were fighting it and to persist in that fight until we won or I died, whichever came first; and

(2) that system actors in the criminal justice system have an extraordinary amount of discretion and can act humanely when they choose to—which means that while legislative work is critical, the culture change work that affects those actors and the broader pressures that constrain and shape their behaviors are critical to large scale reform.

Can you tell us what is the primary message of the book and why it’s important at this time?

As consensus and momentum to end mass incarceration have grown, the current reform narrative, though compelling, has been based on a fallacy: that the United States can achieve large-scale transformative change (that is, reductions of 50 percent or more) by changing responses to nonviolent offenses. But in a country where more than half of its population are incarcerated for crimes of violence, we will not end mass incarceration until we stop avoiding the central challenge of displacing prison as our primary response to harm.

When efforts to reduce the nation’s use of incarceration move beyond a focus on nonviolent crime, they face a wide range of deep-seated and well-known challenges, both political and practical. Such efforts come up against the continued salience of “tough on crime” and “law and order” rhetoric. There is also the limited power of data as a tool to shape public opinion, deep misconceptions about who crime survivors are and what they want, persistent tentativeness of forward-thinking elected officials to enter this terrain, and the need to develop capacity to foster and demonstrate solutions that can take its place.

Crossing the line and dealing with violence also opens up a range of possibilities not otherwise available—possibilities that will be even more essential in the current political landscape. It allows people to think holistically about the communities profoundly affected by violence and incarceration, not just about small segments of those neighborhoods. It allows people to center the needs of crime survivors in their vision, not tiptoe around them or engage them in a limited instrumental fashion. It also allows people to envision a justice system that is not just smaller, but truly transformed into the vehicle for accountability, safety and justice that everyone deserves.

What does the U.S. have to reckon with in order to pave a healthy way forward?

We have to reckon with our centuries-old history of racism and racial inequity and its persistence into the present. We have to acknowledge that the growth of mass incarceration is part of a continuous pattern of harm dating back to slavery and colonization, and we have to have the integrity, honesty, and courage to acknowledge those harms and engage in a process of repairing them.

What is our movement currently missing or not seeing that is really important to help build out this road ahead?

We have too long bought into the myth that survivors want prison and that prison heals them and keeps them safe.

To the contrary: survivors know better than anyone else the limitations of prison as a tool to produce safety. They have paid for that failure with their own pain. When we get past the distortion of survivors’ pain and needs in the public discourse, we find that we—those of us who want something different and better than the system as we know it—are the majority. When we know that, we can stop acting like the outlier radical thinkers we have been told we are and instead behave as powerful majorities do: as a group capable of insisting on change and ushering in a better way.

The Andrus Family Fund is proud to partner with Common Justice in the fight for racial equality without incarceration. To learn more about Sered and her work, listen to this Out of the Margins podcast episode or read this blog post.

#HayOtraForma: Another Way to Realize Justice

Over the past few years, I have tried to make #HayOtraFroma trend on social media. This hashtag is so relevant to me because it literally means that there is another way. In my professional and personal circles, we wholeheartedly believe that there is another way to do our work, care about this planet and live and fight for just communities and sustainable societies. We believe in loving our communities and healing from historical traumas. We believe in the power of speaking our truth. We know that #HayOtraForma.

I entered the new year with hopes of resolutions and change—both for myself and for the world. I hoped that this year would bring a bit of respite from the onslaught and offense that our current political climate constantly hurls. Yet, we are faced with the reality of our current discourse which does not aim to move us to another way, but to move us back to a time of fantasized greatness and forward into a day that democratic principles and institutions are but a distant memory.  We are no longer in a time of innuendo or hidden slight, but faced with an ever-growing insult to our psyches and a silence so deafening that—though it should stop us in our tracks—it does not surprise many of us. To this we welcome 2018 and, yes, I say more than ever there must be another way: #HayOtraForma.

As I sat with my 92-year-old grandmother this weekend, I realized it is she who teaches me that there is another way forward. Born a few decades after the United States colonized Puerto Rico, her life and stories of struggle and triumph make me hopeful. Her stories are of a feminism that is simply lived and not necessarily broadcasted. Her vocal reaction to the cruelty against our communities reminds me that we must create another way and invoke poet Nikki Giovanni’s words when we say to this moment: “…your desires will not be honored this season.”

We at the Andrus Family Fund understand that change is gradual and movements take time to cultivate. What does it look like when we really practice Dr. King’s philosophy to “develop and maintain the capacity to forgive?” Can we embed those beliefs and actions in public policy instead of hateful and punitive laws that continue to target certain groups and give no sense of hope?

Over the past few months, I have had the honor and privilege of speaking to individuals—through our latest podcast series—who know that “something else is possible.” Recent guests on our Out Of The Margins podcast have included Executive Directors of two incredible organizations: Jody Kent Lavy of the Campaign for the Fair Sentencing of Youth and Danielle Sered of Common Justice. We concluded the series with an emotional conversation with Xavier McElreth Bey. A fierce advocate for ending juvenile life without parole and harsh sentences for young people, Xavier exemplifies what is possible when we deeply believe, see, and practice #HayOtraForma.

I encourage you to listen and share our conversations on Out Of The Margins. Our most recent episodes are available here and on iTunes, Soundcloud and Stitcher.

I Choose Love To Build A Stronger Movement

“I have decided to stick with love. Hate is too great a burden to bear.”
– Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Over the past few months, I have tried to embody this lesson into my own personal and professional life with much difficulty. The current political climate has given me much to contemplate. Because we are bombarded by daily attacks that I believe will decimate the most vulnerable among us, I have had plenty of time to sit and meditate with this quote. I think about this as a woman of color, as a family member, as a citizen and as an Executive Director in an industry that can influence and advocate, but I believe, has not found its voice in response to the attacks to the communities that we are in service of. It keeps me up at night some days. I have been trying to step outside of my head and step into this work with my heart and I welcome my funder colleagues to join me. Can we keep love at the center and rise up against the threats to our principles of social justice, compassion and forethought?

I recently moderated a panel at a philanthropy conference and I was taken aback by how business as usual many of the conversations were. I can appreciate the fatigue and the wish to see things as just another day or year but, if we pay close attention, it does seem that potentially the democratic fabric that ties us all together as Americans is at risk. We’ve been told to distrust the media, be weary of science and shut out people with great need. I continue to wake up wondering if I have made some of the most egregious parts of this up. But no. My own personal values are under attack but also the values of the Andrus Family Fund. We believe in Just Opportunity. What does this mean about the way we will go about our work and how we will continue building our relationships with partners?

It is not enough to be responsive to our grantees’ needs now, we must help them fortify their organizations so that they can be here for the long term and for what I believe will be the continuous onslaught of harsh policies for years to come. How do we help them galvanize the power of the moment—the marchers, the slogans, the fire and the anger—to build a lasting, effective movement that will turn out voters for local, regional and national elections to come? I believe that thinking about longevity and sustainability are the bigger goals that relate back to why we do this work.

While we at AFF don’t have all the answers and strive to listen to our partners and to dream of ways to make a greater impact, we must not lose sight of what’s at stake. I do not know that I believe that we are either good or not, but I do believe that under the right causes and conditions, anything is possible. Our future as a loving and compassionate people is being threatened. Let’s make sure to choose love.

Creating Opportunity: Working Together to Build an Inclusive Workforce

In our last blog post, we identified the skills gap that contributes to America’s double digit youth unemployment rate. We also saw how grantee partner LeadersUp is closing the skills gap and connecting opportunity youth with career pathways. However, addressing skills alone cannot solve the workforce inequities we see today. While the Nation’s unemployment rate has improved, recent data shows that the unemployment rate for African American youth under the age of 20 is significantly higher than their white counterparts. Therefore, we believe a focus on racial equity must be part of the solution as well.

Monique“By addressing racial justice, we’re creating a more fair, just and inclusive economy.”
Monique Miles
Director — Opportunity Youth Incentive Fund
Deputy Director — Aspen Forum for Community Solutions

In less than 30 years, the demographics of our country are expected to shift. For the first time in our nation’s history, people of color will make up more than 50 percent of the U.S. population. This unprecedented change will coincide with the retirement of millions of baby boomers, most of which are white. This “graying of America”[1] will result in more employment opportunities available to an increasingly diverse next generation of workers. However, to make progress on reducing workforce inequity, we must ensure these opportunities are equally accessible to people of color.

For too long, these opportunities have not been equally accessible. Some groups, particularly young men of color, face additional barriers to entering the workforce. They are disproportionately affected by unjust systems that, we believe, harm more than help. These young men are at a higher risk of dropping out of high school, being involved with the criminal justice system and, ultimately, unemployment.

Thaddeus“If we don’t address systemic inequities and ensure all youth are ready to work, we’ll never be economically or culturally competitive with the rest of the world.”
Thaddeus Ferber
Vice President of Policy Advocacy — Forum for Youth Investment

We are committed to creating a more equitable society. A focus on equity not only aligns with our values, but we believe also creates a more competitive economy. Data from the National Equity Atlas shows us that a racially inclusive economy can lead to substantial GDP growth—more than $2 trillion per year. So it is important for us to support organizations like the Forum for Youth Investment and Jobs for the Future, which are working both individually and with others to create inclusive, fair and sustainable workforce solutions. Both are key contributors to the Aspen Forum for Community Solutions, a cross-sector collaboration of nonprofits, businesses, philanthropy and government agencies that have come together to address the Nation’s biggest challenges—such as creating racial equity in the workforce and expanding career pathways for young men of color.

jff“We must work aggressively to change trajectories for people of color who have not had access to the opportunities they need to build wealth and advance in our economy.”
Mamadou Ndiaye
Associate Director — Jobs for the Future

The following examples highlight how they partner with the Aspen Forum to address some of these barriers in the workforce.

Opportunity Works
Led by Jobs for the Future (JFF), in collaboration with the Aspen Forum for Community Solutions, the Opportunity Works initiative aims to connect opportunity youth of color with career and education pathways through partnerships with local organizations across the country. Using JFF’s Back on Track framework, these organizations convene a cross-sector collaborative in their communities to improve outcomes for young people—with special attention paid to those who are homeless, and in or transitioning from the foster care and/or juvenile justice system. Opportunity Works is funded through a federal Social Innovation Fund award with generous match funding from the Andrus Family Fund and other foundations.

In San Francisco, the Road Map to Peace collaborative uses Back on Track to work with gang-involved/violence-exposed youth and help them not only achieve their secondary credential, but also transition into community-based training programs that lead to additional credentials with value in the local labor market. In New Orleans, JFF’s framework helps the EMPLOY collaborative ensure that youth of color participating in “learn and earn” programs are trained to successfully meet local industry demands and sustain themselves and their families through high-growth careers.

Opportunity Youth Network
The Opportunity Youth Network (OYN) brings together national non-profits, businesses, philanthropy, and government—along with young leaders—to align efforts to achieve the collective goal of reengaging one million young people who are out of work and out of school. As co-host of OYN, the Forum for Youth Investment works to align efforts inside and outside of government to improve polices and increase funding for opportunity youth.

Additionally, the Forum fosters collaboration between initiatives focused on opportunity youth as wells as boys and young men of color through the Opportunity Youth/Boys and Men of Color Alignment Strategy Group. Since the work that impacts both populations is often one in the same, the group’s main goal is to align national and local efforts to improve outcomes for youth. They do this by mapping opportunity youth and boys and men of color initiatives across the country and identifying opportunities for cross-collaboration between organizations. They have also established “rules of engagement” for national initiatives, which are informed by local leaders who serve vulnerable populations.

We know that there is still very much to do to create opportunities that are available and accessible to all young people. We are excited by the work of these partners and we look forward to seeing their collective impact translate into opportunity for millions of youth.

Thank you for reading our Creating Opportunity blog series. Please feel free to share on social media. Check back soon for new content by the Andrus Family Fund.

[1] The “graying of America” refers to the growth of the Nation’s older population (ages 65 and older). According to a 2014 U.S. Census report, by 2050 this group will make up more than one fifth of the entire U.S. population. This projected figure is more than double what it is currently.

Healing, Hope and Care: Models for Transforming the Lives of Vulnerable Youth, Part II

The Andrus Family Fund recognizes the role that healing, hope and care play in developing young people as well as fostering strong, vibrant communities. exalt and RYSE are good models of how this approach is being used to transform the lives of vulnerable youth.

“Because of past trauma, some of these young people are on survival mode. We emphasize the need to build students’ self confidence, focusing on their strengths. All young people have the right to thrive and explore their passions. That’s why we focus on helping them build their best possible self, healing along the way.”
Danielle Brown Fuller,
exalt Executive Director

exalt is based in Brooklyn, New York and works directly with court-involved youth. By reaching youth at a critical crossroads, exalt inspires lasting behavioral change by teaching youth to believe in their self-worth. exalt empowers their youth by developing life skills—such as how to communicate in the workplace—needed to avoid recidivism and reach their personal and professional goals. exalt’s program is responsive to the needs of young people, supports those who are motivated to change and acknowledges the barriers they face—all within a nurturing environment.

Unlike other programs, participation in exalt is completely voluntary. They believe the non-compulsory nature of their program is the reason why it is so well received by youth. Even before students are accepted into the program, exalt staff will meet with them to gauge their commitment to the program and themselves. This screening process is meant to put students at ease and motivated to change their behavior even before they set foot in a classroom.

While classes meet after school, the lessons taught at exalt cannot be found inside a traditional classroom. exalt’s core curriculum is designed to help students develop four core skills: critical thinking, creative problem solving, communication and resource management. These lessons resonate with students because they are taught within real-life situations they can relate to and connect to their lived experience. Additionally, exalt tackles the injustices stacked against their students head-on—educating them on the school-to-prison pipeline and the systemic injustices that feed it. By helping students understand these connections and realize their potential, exalt is actually counteracting the pipeline for its students.

“exalt brings out the confidence in you; it gets you to try to better yourself so that you can grow to be who you want to be in life.”
Imanii, exalt youth

Putting students on a path to employment is another important aspect of the program. Through partnerships with employers across a variety of industries, students obtain paid internships. Some students have completed internships at organizations—such as the Innocence Project and Criminal Justice Initiative—that are reforming the very criminal justice system they are a part of. Many times, this is the first job a student has had. For some, these internships have led to additional internships and permanent jobs.

Even after youth graduate from the program, exalt continues to work with students through its open door policy and alumni networking events (i.e. educational support, career exploration, college enrollment, alumni internship, etc.) that support their continuous well-being.

We are excited to be working in collaboration and supporting exalt as they raise awareness about their innovative approach to youth development, build their capacity to share promising practices and expand internship opportunities for students and alumni.

On the West Coast, another grantee partner is using its own integrated approach to transform vulnerable youth.

“At this center, youth are actually telling us what they need and we’re making it happen.”
Kimberly Aceves, RYSE Executive Director

RYSE is a youth center in Richmond, California built on the principles of social justice, youth organizing and community transformation. The center’s current response to this trifecta is a burgeoning Youth Justice program called the Restorative Options and Reentry Project (ROAR). They take a trauma-informed approach to youth development that aims to curtail involvement in the juvenile system, provide reentry supports, increase educational and employment opportunities. This model incorporates four core initiatives:

Intervention – Youth touched by the justice system can participate in an integrated 8-week program. Upon completion of the program, youth may have their arrest charges dropped and record removed.

Reentry Programming – For young people that have spent time within a facility, ROAR provides holistic reentry support, which includes individualized plans to fit the needs of each young person.

Hospital-linked Violence Intervention – In order to interrupt cycles of community violence RYSE engages young people that have been harmed by crime at their bedside. More than just a hospital visit this includes assistance with medical follow up, victims of crime compensation application, navigation with and between legal, medical, educational, and other systems, and aid in securing material and well being needs.

Career Development – With a focus on helping young people dream their own futures ROAR focuses on the booming technology industry in the Bay Area. They arm participants with skills they needed to become part of the technology sector.

By providing stabilization, recovery and healing, ROAR believes that it can transform the lives of young people and the communities they come from. We are proud to partner and learn from their model.

In the final installment of our first Healing, Hope and Care blog series, we will see how grantee partner The Reset Foundation is using trauma informed interventions as an alternative to incarceration.

Katrina is an experienced and respected leader with more than 15 years of experience working on a national and regional level. She has worked in the non-profit and philanthropic sector, including serving as AFF’s Program Officer. Currently, Katrina is testing how partnerships between philanthropy and government can work on behalf of our most vulnerable youth and their families as the Director of Strategic Partnerships at the Georgia Division of Family and Children Services. Connect with Katrina on Linkedin.

Healing, Hope and Care: Models for Transforming the Lives of Vulnerable Youth

Children and youth do not grow up in programs and services; they are nurtured in healthy, vibrant communities. However, in order for them to thrive, it is critical for programs that serve our most vulnerable youth to understand and recognize that young people have experienced all types of trauma—directly or indirectly—from the physical of effects child abuse and neglect to the psychological damage of abject poverty to the long lasting impact of mass incarceration in their neighborhoods. For older youth, the mental scars that these types of trauma leave behind require a model that has healing, hope and care as the focal point of the approach.

From a clinical perspective, this approach is widely known as Trauma Informed Care and is usually applied to child serving systems such as child welfare and juvenile justice. However, Dr. Shawn Ginwright, Associate Professor of Education and Africana Studies at San Francisco State University gives us an alternative way of thinking about the power that this model can have on young people. He describes healing as the process of restoring health and well being to individuals and communities. He emphasizes that this kind of healing for young people can foster a collective optimism and a transformation of spirit that, over time, contributes to healthy, vibrant community life. [1]

The Andrus Family Fund recognizes the role that healing, hope and care play in developing young people as well as fostering strong, vibrant communities. AFF recently supported like-minded organizations that:

  • Meet young people where they are and ensure that the environment that they are in is safe, collaborative and utilizes culturally appropriate practices.
  • Utilize a positive youth development approach and build on the strengths and resiliency of young people and their communities.
  • Implement programmatic practices that do not re-traumatize young people.
  • Train and hire staff that understands, recognizes and can respond to trauma.
  • Have trauma informed principles and practices as a core to the development and implementation of their programs and services.

Common Justice
is a grantee partner that shows us how this approach can be used to transform the lives of vulnerable youth.

“Ending cycles of violence requires attending to all victims’ pain.”
– Danielle Sered, Director of Common Justice

Common Justice has an unique approach to working with our most vulnerable youth. By working directly with both the young people who commit violent felonies and their victims, they are able to address the issues that caused the crime to happen in the first place as well as create a safe space where all parties can heal and move past this trauma together.

Common Justice provides an alternative to incarceration while still holding young people accountable for their actions. Through compliance with an intensive 15-month violence intervention program as well as “payback” in the forms of community service, financial restitution and/or school/work commitments, they avoid serving time behind bars.

Additionally, Common Justice provides young men of color—who are 10.5 times more likely to be robbed or assaulted—the support services they need. Traditional victims’ services do not often recognize this reality; Common Justice does. They do this by acknowledging their trauma, humanizing their suffering and responding with cultural- and age-appropriate options not offered by the traditional criminal justice system. By engaging with young people in this way, Common Justice gives those harmed by crime a greater sense of closure and healing.

We applaud Common Justice for their work with young men of color, generating alternatives to incarceration that actually foster safer communities and continuing to be an innovator of transformative impact.

In Part 2 of our Healing, Hope and Care blog series, we look at how grantee partners exalt and The Reset Foundation use trauma informed interventions to approach their work.

[1] Ginwright, Shawn. “Hope, Healing, and Care Pushing the Boundaries of Civic Engagement for African American Youth”. Liberal Education. Spring 2011.

Katrina is an experienced and respected leader with more than 15 years of experience working on a national and regional level. She has worked in the non-profit and philanthropic sector, including serving as AFF’s Program Officer. Currently, Katrina is testing how partnerships between philanthropy and government can work on behalf of our most vulnerable youth and their families as the Director of Strategic Partnerships at the Georgia Division of Family and Children Services. Connect with Katrina on Linkedin.